The Optocracy is a system of government of the Polyarchy type. (see more about Polyarchies here)
The Optocracy assumes that it is very difficult or impossible to get a large group of people to agree “on everything” and that it is counterproductive to force them to do so. Optocracy as a doctrine is the opposite of Totalitarianism and as a system it is the only one that, in practice, is not Totalitarian towards citizens.
The most relevant difference with Democracy (Democratic Polyarchy) is that the democratic selection method (Majority Rule) is replaced by a selection method by coexisting options. With this change the sovereignty of all citizens is equated and the 7 systemic failures of Democracy are solved. (see more about the failures here)
The Optocracy proposes only to focus on agreeing on “what is necessary” and regulating and coordinating alternatives on “what is not necessary to agree on.” For this, in the Optocracy, 2 or 3 “Type of Government” (TypGo) are established that have a National scope among which the citizens choose.
In the General Constitution of the country (which is common and unique to all TypGo), everything “on which it is necessary to agree” is established:
1) The usual “Rights and Guarantees” of all the country’s inhabitants (as occurs in the Democratic Polyarchy).
2) The instrumentation that guarantees the existence and continuity of at least 2 TypGo.
3) The mechanisms that guarantee the right of all citizens of the country to opt for any of the TypGo, and the right that once each cycle has elapsed, all citizens can again opt for any of them.
4) The mechanisms and procedures for the articulation and arbitration of all TypGo among themselves and with the Provincial and Municipal Governments. In this way, “The State” of the country is constituted.
5) The regulatory frameworks within which each TypGo can be defined to differentiate itself from the rest. This delimits everything “on which it is not necessary to agree” in order to guarantee the 4 previous items.
On the other hand, each TypGo is predefined by means of a “Particular Constitution” that must necessarily comply with the “General Constitution”.
Each TypGo must have well defined and differentiated characteristics with respect to the other TypGo. This definition and differentiation gives the system stability and control capacity.
Each “Particular Constitution” must also define the mechanisms so that each TypGo can be adjusted (if necessary), while preserving its definition and differentiation, and thus evolve. The new settings cannot be applied until a new cycle is started.
Optocracy is not about generating a personalized TypGo that suits each citizen. The Optocracy has only 2 or 3 different TypGo among which each citizen must choose and when making his choice must adapt to it. In theory, there could be more than 3 TypGo, but it is not the most convenient, at least initially.
Citizens must choose to register in one of the TypGo in a process similar to the renewal of the document. This registration is renewed or changed every regular periods (cycles), for example 4 years, as established by the General Constitution.
Each TypGo represents its registered voters in the control and supervision of the provincial and municipal governments. In this way, despite the fact that each TypGo has a hierarchy of national government, the Optocracy spills its efficiency over local governments.
The economic sustainability of the TypGo is generated by distributing the administration of National Public Resources among the TypGo in proportion to the percentage of their registered voters.
The National Public Resources do not belong to the TypGo, they belong to the country. The proportion of resources that each TypGo manages varies in each cycle. The operability and efficiency of resource management is one reason why cycles cannot be very short.
As the cycles go by, one of the TypGo ends up being more successful in its policies, which produces corrections in the counterparties. These corrections are to improve and thus be able to conserve or expand its population of voters in order to administer a greater proportion of National Public Resources. This competition between the TypGo to improve their performance and efficiency, ends up benefiting all the country’s citizens.
This is how the predominant characteristic of the Optocracy is the capacity of each person to be able to choose which TypGo will govern them. The option of each citizen is sovereign and is always effective. The choice made by a citizen does not depend on the choice made by the Majority or their place of residence (as in Democracy).
The Optocracy is a way to overcome Democracy not only because it gives each citizen the ability to opt for a TypGo, but also because in doing so, the Optocracy solves each of the “systemic failures” that the Democracy system has.
The Optocracy remedies the injustice of submitting each citizen to the mistakes of the majority, without taking away the right of the majority to be wrong.
The Optocracy continues the correct policies, regardless of the politicians who execute them.
The legal mechanism forming the TypGo, which the Optocracy allows, is the division of legal jurisdictions. It is the same mechanism that allows the legal formation of the provinces and municipalities.
It can be said that so far there has been no optocratic country, but its formative mechanism exists in all the countries of the world. The time of its implementation is approaching as technologies for management control, communication and organization are developed, as these progressively disassociate the individual development of geographical location and borders.
An Optocracy could arise, for example, from the evolution in simultaneous and independent governments of the representative parties (or groupings of parties) of a Democracy, to the extent that they generate TypGo with substantive differences and not only in discourse.